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A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors block the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin. Mammalian target of rapamycin is a protein kinase, which regulates growth factors that stimulate cell growth and angiogenesis. In certain cancers the mTOR pathway is more active.

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are used in treatment of renal cancer and is being studied for use in other types of cancers. More benefits are being seen when MTOR inhibitors are combined with other chemotherapy agents.

See also

Medical conditions associated with mTOR inhibitors:

  • Brain Tumor
  • Breast Cancer
  • Organ Transplant, Rejection Prophylaxis
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Warfarin, the only drug listed here in this category, is a coumarin. It is an oral anticoagulant that inhibits Vitamin K epoxide reductase, an enzyme that that recycles oxidized vitamin K. Vitamin K is an activator of coagulating factors II, VII, IX and X, so by decreasing the availability of Vitamin K synthesis of these factors are decreased.

Warfarin is an extremely effective anticoagulant but there are a few drawbacks. It can interact with certain foods and can it cause serious interactions with many commonly used medicines. Regular blood monitoring (international normalized ratio-INR) is done to check for effectiveness and safety.

Warfarin is used to treat blood clots in cases of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. It is also used to prevent thrombosis in patients at high risk, such as in atrial fibrillation, heart attack and knee or hip surgeries.

See also

Medical conditions associated with coumarins and indandiones:

  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome
  • Chronic Central Venous Catheterization
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis after Hip Replacement Surgery
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis after Knee Replacement Surgery
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis, First Event
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis, Recurrent Event
  • Heart Attack
  • Heart Failure
  • Prevention of Thromboembolism in Atrial Fibrillation
  • Prosthetic Heart Valves
  • Prosthetic Heart Valves, Mechanical Valves
  • Prosthetic Heart Valves, Tissue Valves
  • Protein S Deficiency
  • Pulmonary Embolism, First Event

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

See also

Medical conditions associated with streptomyces derivatives:

  • Brucellosis
  • Endocarditis
  • Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Treatment
  • Plague
  • Rabbit Fever
  • Tuberculosis, Active
  • Tuberculosis, Extrapulmonary

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Antihyperuricemic agents are also called antigout agents. These agents work to either correct overproduction or underexcretion of uric acid.

For the long term control of gout, hyperuricemia caused by formation of uric acid from purines, can be effectively controlled with these agents. The choice of xanthine oxidase inhibitors or uricosuric medicines is based on the level of urinary uric acid excretion, renal function, age of the patient, history of renal calculi and presence of tophi.

See also

Medical conditions associated with antihyperuricemic agents:

  • Calcium Oxalate Calculi with Hyperuricosuria
  • Cardiothoracic Surgery
  • Gout
  • Heart Failure
  • High Risk Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty
  • Hyperuricemia Secondary to Chemotherapy
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Mania
  • Reactive Perforating Collangenosis
  • Urinary Tract Stones

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

In healthy individuals immune globulins are made by plasma cells when exposed by an immunogen such as a virus. Immune globulins act as antibodies against an infection. They are made up of different classes and subclasses of molecules.

The immune globulin used for therapeutic purposes is made from healthy human blood that has a high level of antibodies. Immune globulins are given to those with a weak immune system to strengthen or act as the body

See also

Medical conditions associated with immune globulins:

  • Autoimmune Neutropenia
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation
  • Botulism
  • Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Cytomegalovirus Infection
  • Evan's Syndrome
  • Exposure to Hepatitis B Virus
  • Hepatitis A
  • HIV Infection
  • Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
  • Kawasaki Disease
  • Measles
  • Myasthenia Gravis
  • Polymyositis/Dermatomyositis
  • Primary Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • Rabies Prophylaxis
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus
  • Rh-Isoimmunization
  • Rubella
  • Smallpox Vaccine Reaction
  • Tetanus
  • Tetanus Prophylaxis
  • Varicella-Zoster

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Leprostatic agents inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium leprae, the bacterium that causes leprosy. Different leprostatic agents work differently either by actively killing the growing mycobacteria or by inhibiting bacterial growth. Generally two to three drugs are used together in treatment to avoid emergence of resistant strains of the organism.

See also

Medical conditions associated with leprostatics:

  • Bullous Pemphigoid
  • Dermatitis Herpetiformis
  • Leprosy
  • Leprosy, Dapsone-Resistant
  • Leprosy, Dapsone-Sensitive
  • Leprosy, Erythema Nodosum Leprosum
  • Leprosy, Lepromatous
  • Leprosy, Tuberculoid
  • Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Pemphigoid
  • Pemphigus
  • Pneumocystis Pneumonia
  • Pneumocystis Pneumonia Prophylaxis
  • Toxoplasmosis, Prophylaxis

Nitrates relieve angina by relaxing vascular smooth muscle and causing vasodilatation.

Nitrates release nitric oxide, which activates a soluble cytosolic form of guanylate cyclase. cGMP formation is increased, leading to venorelaxation with a consequent reduction in central venous pressure (reduced pre-load). With larger doses arterioles dilate and arterial pressure drops. As both arterial pressure and cardiac output are decreased, myocardial oxygen consumption is reduced.

Coronary flow is increased via coronary vasodilatation.

Immunologic agents are drugs that can modify the immune response, either by enhancing or suppressing the immune system. They are used to fight infections, prevent and treat certain diseases.

Immunologic agents include drugs used for immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection. They can be used as cancer chemotherapy agents. Some immunologic agents can down-regulate the inflammatory process and can be used to treat inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune conditions and so on.

See also

  • BLyS-specific inhibitors
  • immunostimulants
    • interleukins
    • other immunostimulants
    • therapeutic vaccines
  • interferons
  • sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators
  • tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors
  • vaccine combinations

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Chloride channel activator agent is a locally acting agent that activates chloride channels in the intestine and increases secretion of intestinal fluid that helps in passing of the stool. It is used to treat chronic constipation especially in patients who have little or no benefit from stool softeners or laxatives.

See also

Medical conditions associated with chloride channel activators:

  • Constipation, Chronic
  • Constipation, Drug Induced
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Immunosuppressive agents are drugs that suppress the immune system and reduce the risk of rejection of foreign bodies such as transplant organs. Different classes of immunosuppressive agents have different mechanism of action. Now immunosuppressive agents are used as cancer chemotherapy, in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and to treat severe allergy. As immunosuppressive agents lower the immunity there is increased risk of infection.

See also

  • calcineurin inhibitors
  • interleukin inhibitors
  • other immunosuppressants
  • selective immunosuppressants
  • TNF alfa inhibitors

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Antihistamines are drugs that inhibit the action of histamine in the body by blocking the receptors of histamine. There are two types of histamine receptors H1 and H2. When H1 receptors are stimulated by histamine it may produce allergic reactions such as itching, hay fever and rash or hives.

Antihistamines treat the symptoms of allergic reactions. Some antihistamines are sedating and although some are classed as non-sedating antihistamines, they may still cause drowsiness in some people.

See also

Medical conditions associated with antihistamines:

  • Allergic Reactions
  • Allergic Urticaria
  • Allergies
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Anorexia
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Anxiety
  • Cluster Headaches
  • Cold Symptoms
  • Conjunctivitis, Allergic
  • Cough
  • Cushing's Syndrome
  • Dermatographism
  • Extrapyramidal Reaction
  • Eye Dryness/Redness
  • Eye Redness/Itching
  • Failure to Thrive
  • Hay Fever
  • Insomnia
  • Interstitial Cystitis
  • Light Sedation
  • Migraine
  • Motion Sickness
  • Nasal Congestion
  • Nausea/Vomiting
  • Opiate Adjunct
  • Pain
  • Pruritus
  • Rhinorrhea
  • Sedation
  • Sexual Dysfunction, SSRI Induced
  • Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
  • Urt

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Cholinergic transmission involves the neurotransmitter acetylcholine being released from nerve fibers, binding to designated receptors on other cholinergic nerve fibers and passing on the message to bring about a response. Cholinesterase enzymes are present in the synaptic cleft of cholinergic synapses, and they hydrolyze acetylcholine, decreasing its concentration in the synapses.

Cholinesterase inhibitors bind to cholinesterase resulting in increased acetylcholine in the synapses, causing increased parasympathetic activity i.e. vasodilatation, constriction of pupils in the eyes, increased secretion of sweat, saliva and tears, slow heart rate, mucus secretion in the respiratory tract and constriction of bronchioles and so on.

The cholinesterase inhibitors listed here are mainly ones that affect the central nervous system. They penetrate the blood brain barrier and enhance cholinergic transmission in the brain. These agents are used to treat dementia in patients with Alzeihmer

See also

Medical conditions associated with cholinesterase inhibitors:

  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • Mild Cognitive Impairment
  • Parkinson's Disease

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Loop diuretics inhibit the Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter in the thick ascending loop of Henle, in the kidneys and stop the transport of sodium chloride out of the tubule into the interstitial tissue, causing a decrease in sodium and chloride re-absorption. They act on the chloride-binding site and have a direct inhibiting effect on the carrier.

Inhibition of this transporter leads to a significant increase in concentration of ions in the tubule and reduced hypertonicity in the surrounding interstitium, causing less water to be reabsorbed into the blood. This causes more urine to be produced and a decrease in blood volume.

See also

Medical conditions associated with loop diuretics:

  • Ascites
  • Edema
  • Heart Failure
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Nonobstructive Oliguria
  • Oliguria
  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Renal Failure
  • Renal Transplant

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Meglinitides work by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin in response to a meal. It closes ATP-dependent potassium channels in functioning pancreatic beta cells. This blockade of potassium channels depolarizes the beta cells, which leads to opening of calcium channels resulting in influx of calcium. Increased intracellular calcium induces insulin secretion.

Meglitinides are used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes.

See also

Medical conditions associated with meglitinides:

  • Diabetes, Type 2

Antineoplastics or anticancer drugs affect the process of cell division i.e. are antiproliferative. They damage the DNA and initiate apoptosis, preventing the development and spread of neoplastic cells.

They also affect rapidly dividing normal cells, therefore are likely to suppress the bone marrow, suppress growth, impair healing, cause sterility and cause hair loss.

See also

  • alkylating agents
  • antibiotics/antineoplastics
  • antimetabolites
  • antineoplastic detoxifying agents
  • antineoplastic interferons
  • BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • EGFR inhibitors
  • HER2 inhibitors
  • histone deacetylase inhibitors
  • hormones/antineoplastics
  • miscellaneous antineoplastics
  • mitotic inhibitors
  • mTOR inhibitors
  • mTOR kinase inhibitors
  • multikinase inhibitors
  • tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • VEGF/VEGFR inhibitors

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Upper respiratory combinations are products that may contain one or more medicines, which relieve cough, act as decongestants or relieve allergy or hay fever symptoms.

See also

Medical conditions associated with upper respiratory combinations:

  • Allergic Urticaria
  • Allergies
  • Cold Symptoms
  • Cough
  • Cough and Nasal Congestion
  • Expectoration
  • Eye Dryness/Redness
  • Eye Redness/Itching
  • Fever
  • Hay Fever
  • Headache
  • Influenza
  • Nasal Congestion
  • Pain
  • Pain/Fever
  • Pruritus
  • Rhinitis
  • Rhinorrhea
  • Sinus Symptoms
  • Sinusitis
  • Tonsillitis/Pharyngitis
  • Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Mast cell stabilizers act on mast cells and prevent them from releasing substances that cause allergic reactions. They block a calcium channel that is important for degranulation (which occurs after exposure to specific antigens) of sensitized mast cells, and inhibits the release of histamine and slow-reacting substances of anaphylaxis. Mast cell stabilizers are used to prevent asthma attacks and the symptoms of seasonal or chronic allergic rhinitis.

See also

Medical conditions associated with mast cell stabilizers:

  • Asthma, Maintenance
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Systemic Mastocytosis

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Topical debriding agents are chemicals that are used locally to clean an open wound by removing foreign material and dead tissue, so that the wound heals without increased risk of infection. This makes the healing faster.

See also

Medical conditions associated with topical debriding agents:

  • Actinic Keratosis
  • Burns, External
  • Dermatologic Lesion
  • Wound Cleansing