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A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Antihyperuricemic agents are also called antigout agents. These agents work to either correct overproduction or underexcretion of uric acid.

For the long term control of gout, hyperuricemia caused by formation of uric acid from purines, can be effectively controlled with these agents. The choice of xanthine oxidase inhibitors or uricosuric medicines is based on the level of urinary uric acid excretion, renal function, age of the patient, history of renal calculi and presence of tophi.

See also

Medical conditions associated with antihyperuricemic agents:

  • Calcium Oxalate Calculi with Hyperuricosuria
  • Cardiothoracic Surgery
  • Gout
  • Heart Failure
  • High Risk Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty
  • Hyperuricemia Secondary to Chemotherapy
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Mania
  • Reactive Perforating Collangenosis
  • Urinary Tract Stones

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Antihistamines are drugs that inhibit the action of histamine in the body by blocking the receptors of histamine. There are two types of histamine receptors H1 and H2. When H1 receptors are stimulated by histamine it may produce allergic reactions such as itching, hay fever and rash or hives.

Antihistamines treat the symptoms of allergic reactions. Some antihistamines are sedating and although some are classed as non-sedating antihistamines, they may still cause drowsiness in some people.

See also

Medical conditions associated with antihistamines:

  • Allergic Reactions
  • Allergic Urticaria
  • Allergies
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Anorexia
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Anxiety
  • Cluster Headaches
  • Cold Symptoms
  • Conjunctivitis, Allergic
  • Cough
  • Cushing's Syndrome
  • Dermatographism
  • Extrapyramidal Reaction
  • Eye Dryness/Redness
  • Eye Redness/Itching
  • Failure to Thrive
  • Hay Fever
  • Insomnia
  • Interstitial Cystitis
  • Light Sedation
  • Migraine
  • Motion Sickness
  • Nasal Congestion
  • Nausea/Vomiting
  • Opiate Adjunct
  • Pain
  • Pruritus
  • Rhinorrhea
  • Sedation
  • Sexual Dysfunction, SSRI Induced
  • Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
  • Urt

Antineoplastics or anticancer drugs affect the process of cell division i.e. are antiproliferative. They damage the DNA and initiate apoptosis, preventing the development and spread of neoplastic cells.

They also affect rapidly dividing normal cells, therefore are likely to suppress the bone marrow, suppress growth, impair healing, cause sterility and cause hair loss.

See also

  • alkylating agents
  • antibiotics/antineoplastics
  • antimetabolites
  • antineoplastic detoxifying agents
  • antineoplastic interferons
  • BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • EGFR inhibitors
  • HER2 inhibitors
  • histone deacetylase inhibitors
  • hormones/antineoplastics
  • miscellaneous antineoplastics
  • mitotic inhibitors
  • mTOR inhibitors
  • mTOR kinase inhibitors
  • multikinase inhibitors
  • tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • VEGF/VEGFR inhibitors

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Anti-angiogenic ophthalmic agents act as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonists. When retinal pigment cells become ischemic and dry up VEGF stimulates generation of new blood vessels by a process called neovascularization. During the generation of new blood vessels in the retina, if the blood vessels do not generate properly it causes leaking. This can lead to loss of vision.

Anti-angiogenic ophthalmic agents are used to stop neovascularization in age related macular degeneration.

See also

Medical conditions associated with anti-angiogenic ophthalmic agents:

  • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • Macular Degeneration
  • Macular Edema

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Antihypertensive combinations have agents that control blood pressure. One pill or dose form contains more than one class of drug, which is indicated to treat hypertension. Having a combination of drugs in one pill may better control hypertension by improving compliance.

See also

Medical conditions associated with antihypertensive combinations:

  • Angina
  • Ascites
  • Edema
  • Heart Failure
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Nephrotic Syndrome

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Aminoglycosides are a group of bactericidal antibiotics, which act by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Their use is restricted because of potential side effects, as they can cause ear and kidney damage. All the aminoglycosides resemble each other in antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetics and toxicity.

Aminoglycosides are not well absorbed when given orally, so need to be given intravenously for systemic infections.

Aminoglycosides are used when other less toxic antibiotics are contraindicated or ineffective. They are mainly active against aerobic gram-negative bacilli, staphylococci and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but lack activity against anaerobes.

See also

Medical conditions associated with aminoglycosides:

  • Amebiasis
  • Bacteremia
  • Bacterial Endocarditis Prevention
  • Bacterial Infection
  • Bone infection
  • Bowel Preparation
  • Brucellosis
  • Burns, External
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Diarrhea
  • Dientamoeba fragilis
  • Dog Tapeworm
  • Endocarditis
  • Endometritis
  • Febrile Neutropenia
  • Fish Tapeworm Infection
  • Giardiasis
  • Hepatic Coma
  • Hepatic Encephalopathy
  • Hymenolepis nana, Dwarf Tapeworm
  • Intraabdominal Infection
  • Joint Infection
  • Kidney Infections
  • Meningitis
  • Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Trea

Central nervous system analgesics are drugs that alleviate pain without causing anesthesia. These analgesics are usually used to relieve severe pain.

See also

  • analgesic combinations
  • antimigraine agents
  • cox-2 inhibitors
  • miscellaneous analgesics
  • narcotic analgesic combinations
  • narcotic analgesics
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents
  • salicylates

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Natural interferons are produced by lymphocytes as part of an immunological response to viral antigens. Synthetic interferons, made by recombinant DNA technology, are used as antiviral agents to treat infections such as hepatitis and herpes zoster virus.

Interferons induce the production of enzymes in the ribosomes of the host cells and inhibit the translation of viral mRNA into viral proteins, therefore stop viral reproduction.

See also

Medical conditions associated with antiviral interferons:

  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Melanoma
  • Melanoma, Metastatic
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Thrombocythemia

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Antitussives are drugs that suppress coughing, possibly by reducing the activity of the cough center in the brain. T

Antitussive agents are used to relieve dry cough.

See also

Medical conditions associated with antitussives:

  • Cough
  • Diarrhea
  • Pain

Anticoagulants are agents that prevent the formation of blood clots, by affecting blood coagulation factors. The mechanism of action of anticoagulation varies depending on the agent. They are used to treat thrombotic and thromboembolic disease such as stroke, myocardial infarction, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

See also

  • coumarins and indandiones
  • factor Xa inhibitors
  • heparins
  • thrombin inhibitors

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Anticholinergic/antispasmodic agents inhibit the action of acetylcholine. They stop the transmission of parasympathetic nerve impulses therefore lessen the spasms of smooth muscle, such as in the gastrointestinal tract and in the bladder. They are used to treat spasms or conditions with disturbances in the bladder or gastrointestinal motility.

See also

Medical conditions associated with anticholinergics/antispasmodics:

  • Anesthesia
  • Anticholinesterase Poisoning
  • AV Heart Block
  • Bradyarrhythmia
  • Colitis
  • Crohn's Disease
  • Duodenal Ulcer
  • Endoscopy or Radiology Premedication
  • Enterocolitis
  • Enuresis
  • Excessive Salivation
  • Gas
  • GERD
  • Hot Flashes
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Menopausal Disorders
  • Motion Sickness
  • Nausea/Vomiting
  • Organophosphate Poisoning
  • Overactive Bladder
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Parkinsonian Tremor
  • Peptic Ulcer
  • Perimenopausal Symptoms
  • Postmenopausal Symptoms
  • Urinary Incontinence

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Antirheumatics include drugs, which are used to treat the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and those that can modify the course of the disease. The drugs that help treat the symptoms such as pain and inflammation are aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and steroids. Drugs that can slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and help with pain, inflammation and stiffness are called disease modifying rheumatoid arthritis drugs (DMARDs).

See also

Medical conditions associated with antirheumatics:

  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Acute Nonlymphocytic Leukemia
  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • Ankylosing Spondylitis
  • Atopic Dermatitis
  • Autoimmune Hepatitis
  • Behcet's Disease
  • Biliary Cirrhosis
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Brain Tumor
  • Breast Cancer
  • Bullous Pemphigoid
  • Celiac Disease
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Choriocarcinoma
  • Chronic Active Hepatitis
  • Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Cogan's Syndrome
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Crohn's Disease
  • Crohn's Disease, Acute
  • Crohn's Disease, Maintenance
  • Cystinuria
  • Dermatomyositis
  • Ectopic Pregnancy
  • Eczema
  • Esophageal Carcinoma
  • Evan's Syndrom

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Centrally acting antiadrenergic agents inhibit the stimulation of the central nervous system alpha-adrenergic receptors and decrease sympathetic stimulation to the blood vessels and the heart. They block the release and action of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine), which are released in response to stress.

Centrally acting antiadrenergic agents make the heart beat slower and with less force, and relax the blood vessels. All these actions lead to a decrease blood pressure.

Centrally acting antiadrenergic agents are used to treat hypertension.

See also

Medical conditions associated with antiadrenergic agents, centrally acting:

  • ADHD
  • Alcohol Withdrawal
  • Anxiety
  • Atrial Fibrillation
  • Benzodiazepine Withdrawal
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Hyperhidrosis
  • Hypertensive Emergency
  • Insomnia, Stimulant-Associated
  • Migraine Prevention
  • Opiate Withdrawal
  • Pain
  • Perimenopausal Symptoms
  • Persisting Pain, Shingles
  • Pheochromocytoma Diagnosis
  • Postanesthetic Shivering
  • Restless Legs Syndrome
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Tardive Dyskinesia
  • Tourette's Syndrome
  • Ulcerative Colitis

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Amylin analogs are used in the treatment of diabetes. They are stable synthetic compounds, which are administered subcutaneously before meals, and work similarly to the physiological amylin.

Amylin is a 37 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is secreted with insulin from the beta cells in the pancreas. In diabetes, as less insulin is secreted there is also a deficiency of amylin. Amylin assists insulin in postprandial glucose control. It inhibits glucagon secretion, delays gastric emptying and signals satiety, suppressing the intake of food.

See also

Medical conditions associated with amylin analogs:

  • Diabetes, Type 1
  • Diabetes, Type 2

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Antianginal drugs are used to manage angina by either improving perfusion of the myocardium, reducing the metabolic demand of the heart, or both.

Two of the main groups of antianginal drugs are organic nitrates and calcium antagonists. They are vasodilators and improve myocardial perfusion, and reduced metabolic demand of the myocardium.

Beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists slow the heart rate therefore reduces metabolic demand of the heart.

See also

  • nitrates

Medical conditions associated with antianginal agents:

  • Anal Fissure and Fistula
  • Angina
  • Angina Pectoris Prophylaxis
  • Cyanide Poisoning
  • Esophageal Spasm
  • Heart Attack
  • Heart Failure
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
  • Raynaud's Syndrome

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Antipseudomonal penicillins are antimicrobial agents, which are used to treat pseudomonal infections. They have the activity of penicillins and aminopenicillins, and additional activity against Pseudomonas, Enterococcus and Klebsiella.

Antipseudomonal penicillins are usually given with beta-lactamase inhibitors because like other penicillins they are susceptible to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases (therefore are not consistently active against Staphylococcus, some gram-negative rods and certain beta-lactamse producing gram-negative anaerobes).

These penicillins when given with aminoglycosides work effectively and avoid development of resistance strains of bacteria.

See also

Medical conditions associated with antipseudomonal penicillins:

  • Bladder Infection
  • Bone infection
  • Cesarean Section
  • Febrile Neutropenia
  • Gonococcal Infection, Uncomplicated
  • Hysterectomy
  • Intraabdominal Infection
  • Joint Infection
  • Kidney Infections
  • Meningitis
  • Nosocomial Pneumonia
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Peritonitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Pneumonia with Cystic Fibrosis
  • Prostatitis
  • Septicemia
  • Skin Infection
  • Surgical Prophylaxis
  • Urinary Tract Infection

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Analgesic combination products contain either one or more types of analgesics with other medicines. The different analgesics generally have different modes of action and work simultaneously to reduce pain.

See also

Medical conditions associated with analgesic combinations:

  • Anxiety
  • Back Pain
  • Cold Symptoms
  • Fever
  • Hangover
  • Headache
  • Influenza
  • Insomnia
  • Migraine
  • Muscle Pain
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Pain
  • Pain/Fever
  • Period Pain
  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
  • Premenstrual Syndrome
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Sinusitis

Antiparkinson agents aim to replace dopamine either by drugs that release dopamine or those that mimic the action of dopamine. Parkinson

See also

  • anticholinergic antiparkinson agents
  • dopaminergic antiparkinsonism agents
  • miscellaneous antiparkinson agents

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Adamantane antivirals are only active against influenza A virus, an RNA virus, but has no action against influenza B virus. A viral membrane protein, M2, functions as an ion channel at two stages of the viral replication within the host cell. These stages are the fusion of viral membrane and endosome membrane, and the assembly and release of new virions. Adamantane antivirals block this ion channel.

See also

Medical conditions associated with adamantane antivirals:

  • ADHD
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Extrapyramidal Reaction
  • Fatigue
  • Influenza
  • Influenza A
  • Influenza Prophylaxis
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Post-Polio Syndrome
  • Sexual Dysfunction, SSRI Induced

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

See also

Medical conditions associated with antimalarial quinolines:

  • Amebiasis
  • Dermatomyositis
  • Lyme Disease, Arthritis
  • Malaria
  • Malaria Prevention
  • Nocturnal Leg Cramps
  • Pneumocystis Pneumonia
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Sjogren's Syndrome
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease