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A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Bacterial vaccines contain killed or attenuated bacteria that activate the immune system. Antibodies are built against that particular bacteria, and prevents bacterial infection later. An example of a bacterial vaccine is the Tuberculosis vaccine.

See also

Medical conditions associated with bacterial vaccines:

  • Anthrax Prophylaxis
  • Cholera Prophylaxis
  • Haemophilus influenzae Prophylaxis
  • Meningococcal Meningitis Prophylaxis
  • Plague Prophylaxis
  • Pneumococcal Disease Prophylaxis
  • Respiratory Tract Disease
  • Tetanus Prophylaxis
  • Tuberculosis, Prophylaxis
  • Typhoid Prophylaxis
  • Urinary Tract Tumors

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Beta-lactamase inhibitors block the activity of beta-lactamase enzymes.

Some species of bacteria produce beta-lactamase enzymes, which cleave the beta-lactam group in antibiotics, such as penicillin, that have a beta-lactam ring in their structure. In doing so the beta-lactamase enzyme inactivates the antibiotic and becomes resistant to that antibiotic. To avoid development of resistance, beta-lactamase inhibitors are administered with the beta-lactam antibiotics so the action of beta-lactamase is inhibited. This tends to widen the spectrum of antibacterial activity.

See also

Medical conditions associated with beta-lactamase inhibitors:

  • Appendectomy
  • Aspiration Pneumonia
  • Bacteremia
  • Bacterial Infection
  • Bone infection
  • Bronchitis
  • Deep Neck Infection
  • Endometritis
  • Epiglottitis
  • Febrile Neutropenia
  • Intraabdominal Infection
  • Joint Infection
  • Kidney Infections
  • Melioidosis
  • Meningitis
  • Nosocomial Pneumonia
  • Otitis Media
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Peritonitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Pneumonia with Cystic Fibrosis
  • Septicemia
  • Sinusitis
  • Skin and Structure Infection
  • Skin Infection
  • Small Bowel Bacterial Overgrowth
  • Strep Throat
  • Surgical Prophylaxis
  • Upper Respirat

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Benzodiazepines are a class of agents that work on the central nervous system, acting selectively on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A) receptors in the brain. It enhances response to the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, by opening GABA-activated chloride channels and allowing chloride ions to enter the neuron, making the neuron negatively charged and resistant to excitation.

Benzodiazepines are similar in pharmacological action but have different potencies, and some benzodiazepine work better in treatment of particular conditions. Benzodiazepines are used as sedativess, hypnotics, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants and muscle relaxants.

See also

Medical conditions associated with benzodiazepines:

  • Alcohol Withdrawal
  • Anxiety
  • Benzodiazepine Withdrawal
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Burning Mouth Syndrome
  • Cervical Dystonia
  • Depression
  • Dysautonomia
  • Endoscopy or Radiology Premedication
  • Hyperekplexia
  • ICU Agitation
  • Insomnia
  • Light Anesthesia
  • Light Sedation
  • Meniere's Disease
  • Migraine Prevention
  • Muscle Spasm
  • Nausea/Vomiting
  • Nausea/Vomiting, Chemotherapy Induced
  • Night Terrors
  • Opiate Withdrawal
  • Panic Disorder
  • Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
  • Restless Legs Syndrome
  • Sedation
  • Seizure Prevention
  • Seizures

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Bisphosphonates are drugs that inhibit mineralization or resorption of the bone by blocking the action of osteoclasts. Bisphosphonates are enzyme-resistant analogues of pyrophosphate, which normally inhibits mineralization in the bone. Their effect is dose dependent and they reduce the turnover of bone by inhibiting recruitment and promoting apoptosis of osteoclasts.

Bisphosphonates are used to treat postmenopausal and glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis, Paget

See also

Medical conditions associated with bisphosphonates:

  • Aseptic Necrosis
  • Breast Cancer, Bone Metastases
  • Heterotopic Ossification, Spinal Cord Injury
  • Heterotopic Ossification, Total Hip Arthroplasty
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Hypercalcemia of Malignancy
  • Osteolytic Bone Lesions of Multiple Myeloma
  • Osteolytic Bone Metastases of Solid Tumors
  • Osteoporosis
  • Paget's Disease
  • Prevention of Osteoporosis

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Barbiturate anticonvulsants are a group of drugs derived from barbituric acid and they act by suppressing activity of the central nervous system. Barbiturate anticonvulsants enhance the action of GABA, which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, and inhibits initiation of discharge that would start the seizure. Barbiturates facilitate GABA-mediated opening of chloride channels and increases effectiveness of GABA.

Barbiturates are used to treat all types of seizures except absence seizures.

See also

Medical conditions associated with barbiturate anticonvulsants:

  • Benign Essential Tremor
  • Epilepsy
  • Hyperbilirubinemia
  • Insomnia
  • Sedation
  • Seizures

Bronchodilators are agents that widen the air passages by relaxing the bronchial smooth muscle. Bronchodilators are either short-acting or long-acting beta2-agonists, anticholinergic agents or theophylline. They are used to control symptoms of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.

Short acting bronchodilators are used when needed for quick relief of asthma symptoms and long acting bronchodilators are used regularly to control symptoms of asthma.

See also

  • adrenergic bronchodilators
  • anticholinergic bronchodilators
  • bronchodilator combinations
  • methylxanthines

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Bile acid sequestrants are used to reduce low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. After oral administration, they are not absorbed but bind to bile acids (which contains cholesterol) in the intestine and prevent their reabsorption into the body. The bound complex is insoluble and is excreted in the faeces. Decrease in bile acid leads to an increase in hepatic synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol. Depletion of cholesterol increases LDL receptor activity, therefore increases removal of LDL cholesterol from the blood.

See also

Medical conditions associated with bile acid sequestrants:

  • Crohn's Disease
  • Diabetes, Type 2
  • Diarrhea, Chronic
  • High Cholesterol
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IIa, Elevated LDL
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IIb, Elevated LDL VLDL
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Pruritus of Partial Biliary Obstruction

Beta adrenergic blocking agents prevent stimulation of the beta adrenergic receptors at the nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system and therefore decrease the activity of the heart. They block sympathetic stimulation of the heart and reduce systolic pressure, heart rate, cardiac contractility and output, so decrease myocardial oxygen demand and increase exercise tolerance.

Beta adrenergic blocking agents are used to treat angina, control abnormal heart rhythms and to reduce high blood pressure. However, blocking of the beta receptors may cause bronchial constriction therefore care has to be taken with the use of beta blockers in patients with respiratory conditions.

See also

  • cardioselective beta blockers
  • non-cardioselective beta blockers

Bone resorption inhibitors are drugs that inhibit mineralization or resorption of the bone by blocking the action of osteoclasts. They are used to treat postmenopausal and glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis, Paget

See also

  • miscellaneous bone resorption inhibitors

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors inhibit the enzyme BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, which is important in the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).

Chronic myelogenous leukemia occurs due a single genetic abnormality, known as the Philadelphia chromosome. During the translocation when the Philadelphia chromosome is created, a fusion gene called BCR-ABL gene is formed. The BCR-ABL gene encodes for the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase. The BCR-ABL positive cells in chronic myelogenous leukemia have increased proliferation and resistance to cell death.

BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors are used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia.

See also

Medical conditions associated with BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors:

  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
  • Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
  • Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans
  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor
  • Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
  • Leukemia
  • Myelodysplastic Diseases
  • Myeloproliferative Disorders
  • Systemic Mastocytosis

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Barbiturates are a group of drugs derived from barbituric acid. They suppress central nervous system activity and are effective anxiolytics, antiepileptics, sedatives and hypnotics. Barbiturates enhance the action of GABA by binding to the GABA-receptor/chloride channel.

They are classified into three groups according to their duration of action

See also

Medical conditions associated with barbiturates:

  • Epilepsy
  • Hyperbilirubinemia
  • Insomnia
  • Light Sedation
  • Sedation
  • Seizures
  • Status Epilepticus

See also

  • antitoxins and antivenins
  • colony stimulating factors
  • hematopoietic stem cell mobilizer
  • in vivo diagnostic biologicals
  • recombinant human erythropoietins

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Bronchodilator combinations are generally inhalers or inhalation devices, which contain more than one bronchodilator, or a bronchodilator and a steroid.

Bronchodilator combinations with more than one bronchodilator usually consist of a short acting and a long acting bronchodilator. The bronchodilators may work by different mechanisms to dilate the air passages, and makes air flow easier.

Bronchodilator combinations with a steroid and bronchodilator act more like a preventative. Steroids block the body

See also

Medical conditions associated with bronchodilator combinations:

  • Asthma
  • Asthma, Maintenance
  • COPD
  • COPD, Maintenance

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Benzodiazepines enhance activation of GABA receptors and act as central nervous system depressants. They inhibit spread of discharge that causes seizures in epileptics.

Benzodiazepines are effective anticonvulsants but due to their sedative effect they are rarely used as maintenance therapy. Diazepam, a benzodiazepine, is given intravenously to treat status epilepticus, which can be a life threatening condition where seizures occur almost continuously.

See also

Medical conditions associated with benzodiazepine anticonvulsants:

  • Alcohol Withdrawal
  • Anxiety
  • Benzodiazepine Withdrawal
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Burning Mouth Syndrome
  • Cervical Dystonia
  • Dysautonomia
  • Endoscopy or Radiology Premedication
  • Hyperekplexia
  • ICU Agitation
  • Insomnia
  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome
  • Light Anesthesia
  • Light Sedation
  • Meniere's Disease
  • Migraine Prevention
  • Muscle Spasm
  • Nausea/Vomiting
  • Nausea/Vomiting, Chemotherapy Induced
  • Night Terrors
  • Panic Disorder
  • Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
  • Restless Legs Syndrome
  • Sedation
  • Seizure Prevention
  • Seizures
  • Status Epilepticus
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorder
  • Tetanus