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A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Warfarin, the only drug listed here in this category, is a coumarin. It is an oral anticoagulant that inhibits Vitamin K epoxide reductase, an enzyme that that recycles oxidized vitamin K. Vitamin K is an activator of coagulating factors II, VII, IX and X, so by decreasing the availability of Vitamin K synthesis of these factors are decreased.

Warfarin is an extremely effective anticoagulant but there are a few drawbacks. It can interact with certain foods and can it cause serious interactions with many commonly used medicines. Regular blood monitoring (international normalized ratio-INR) is done to check for effectiveness and safety.

Warfarin is used to treat blood clots in cases of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. It is also used to prevent thrombosis in patients at high risk, such as in atrial fibrillation, heart attack and knee or hip surgeries.

See also

Medical conditions associated with coumarins and indandiones:

  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome
  • Chronic Central Venous Catheterization
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis after Hip Replacement Surgery
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis after Knee Replacement Surgery
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis, First Event
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis, Recurrent Event
  • Heart Attack
  • Heart Failure
  • Prevention of Thromboembolism in Atrial Fibrillation
  • Prosthetic Heart Valves
  • Prosthetic Heart Valves, Mechanical Valves
  • Prosthetic Heart Valves, Tissue Valves
  • Protein S Deficiency
  • Pulmonary Embolism, First Event

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Chloride channel activator agent is a locally acting agent that activates chloride channels in the intestine and increases secretion of intestinal fluid that helps in passing of the stool. It is used to treat chronic constipation especially in patients who have little or no benefit from stool softeners or laxatives.

See also

Medical conditions associated with chloride channel activators:

  • Constipation, Chronic
  • Constipation, Drug Induced
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Cholinergic transmission involves the neurotransmitter acetylcholine being released from nerve fibers, binding to designated receptors on other cholinergic nerve fibers and passing on the message to bring about a response. Cholinesterase enzymes are present in the synaptic cleft of cholinergic synapses, and they hydrolyze acetylcholine, decreasing its concentration in the synapses.

Cholinesterase inhibitors bind to cholinesterase resulting in increased acetylcholine in the synapses, causing increased parasympathetic activity i.e. vasodilatation, constriction of pupils in the eyes, increased secretion of sweat, saliva and tears, slow heart rate, mucus secretion in the respiratory tract and constriction of bronchioles and so on.

The cholinesterase inhibitors listed here are mainly ones that affect the central nervous system. They penetrate the blood brain barrier and enhance cholinergic transmission in the brain. These agents are used to treat dementia in patients with Alzeihmer

See also

Medical conditions associated with cholinesterase inhibitors:

  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • Mild Cognitive Impairment
  • Parkinson's Disease

Cephalosporins are a group of broad spectrum, semi-synthetic beta-lactam antibiotics derived from the mould Cephalosporium. They are divided into three groups: Cephalosporin N and C are chemically related to penicillins and Cephalosporin P a steroid antibiotic resembles fusidic acid.

The mechanism of action of cephalosporins is the same as penicillins. They interfere with bacterial cell wall synthesis.

Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporins have been produced by the addition of different side chains, to the Cephalosporin C nucleus.

They are classified according to the chronological order in which they were produced.

See also

  • first generation cephalosporins
  • fourth generation cephalosporins
  • next generation cephalosporins
  • second generation cephalosporins
  • third generation cephalosporins

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

See also

Medical conditions associated with CD30 monoclonal antibodies:

  • Hodgkin's Lymphoma
  • Lymphoma

Coagulation modifiers are drugs that act on the blood coagulation pathway in different places to prevent or promote blood clot formation.

Coagulation modifiers that prevent blood clot formation are anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs and thrombolytic drugs. Those that promote clot formation are fibrinolytics. Heparin antagonists and platelet-stimulating agents are used to reduce the risk of bleeding.

See also

  • anticoagulants
    • coumarins and indandiones
    • factor Xa inhibitors
    • heparins
    • thrombin inhibitors
  • antiplatelet agents
    • glycoprotein platelet inhibitors
    • platelet aggregation inhibitors
  • heparin antagonists
  • miscellaneous coagulation modifiers
  • platelet-stimulating agents
  • thrombolytics

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Catecholamines include adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine. They are physiologically important neurotransmitters, as part of the sympathetic and central nervous systems. Catecholamines act on both the alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. Catecholamines are released in times of stress. They make your heart beat faster with greater force and narrow the blood vessels, causing a rise in blood pressure.

The beta1 effects of catecholamine on the heart are due to an increase in intracellular concentration of cyclic-AMP. Cyclic-AMP activates protein kinase A, which phosphorylates sites on calcium channels, including alpha1-subunits.

This increases the probability that the channels will open, increasing inward calcium ion current and therefore the force of cardiac contraction. It also increases the calcium ion capture by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, increasing the amount of calcium stored intracellularly available for release by action potential. So the net result of catecholamine action is to elevate and steepen the ventricular function curve. The increase in heart rate results in an increased slope of pacemaker potential owing to a shift in the voltage-dependence of the conductance

See also

Medical conditions associated with catecholamines:

  • Adams-Stokes Syndrome
  • Allergic Reactions
  • Asthma, acute
  • Asystole
  • AV Heart Block
  • Bronchospasm During Anesthesia
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia
  • COPD, Acute
  • Electromechanical Dissociation
  • Heart Failure
  • Hypotension
  • Nonobstructive Oliguria

Cardiovascular agents are drugs, which are used in any way to treat conditions of the heart or the circulatory or vascular system. Many classes of cardiovascular agents are available to treat the various cardiovascular conditions.

See also

  • agents for hypertensive emergencies
  • agents for pulmonary hypertension
  • aldosterone receptor antagonists
  • angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
  • angiotensin II inhibitors
  • antiadrenergic agents, centrally acting
  • antiadrenergic agents, peripherally acting
    • alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists
  • antianginal agents
    • nitrates
  • antiarrhythmic agents
    • group I antiarrhythmics
    • group II antiarrhythmics
    • group III antiarrhythmics
    • group IV antiarrhythmics
    • group V antiarrhythmics
  • anticholinergic chronotropic agents
  • antihypertensive combinations
  • beta-adrenergic blocking agents
    • cardioselective beta blockers
    • non-cardioselective beta blockers
  • calcium channel blocking agents
  • catecholamines
  • diuretics
    • carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    • loop diuretics
    • miscellaneous diuretics
    • potassium-sparing diuretics
    • thiazide diuretics
  • inotropic agents
  • miscellaneous cardiovascular agents
  • peripheral vasodilators
  • prostaglandin D2 antagonists
  • renin inhibitors
  • sclerosing agents

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

See also

Medical conditions associated with calcineurin inhibitors:

  • Cogan's Syndrome
  • Crohn's Disease
  • Evan's Syndrome
  • Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
  • Graft-versus-host disease
  • Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Organ Transplant, Rejection Prophylaxis
  • Organ Transplant, Rejection Reversal
  • Pemphigoid
  • Pemphigus
  • Psoriasis
  • Psoriatic Arthritis
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Ulcerative Colitis
  • Ulcerative Colitis, Active

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Cholinergic muscle stimulants are agents that increase the presence of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter, in the neuromuscular junction

Generally, cholinergic muscle stimulants are cholinesterase inhibitors. They block the cholinesterase enzyme, which is responsible for breaking down the acetylcholine in the synapses. This inhibition provides more acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction for a longer period of time.

Cholinergic muscle stimulants are used to diagnose and treat myasthenia gravis, a chronic disorder that causes muscle weakness. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease where autoantibodies bind to cholinergic receptors in neuromuscular junction and prevents the acetylcholine from triggering muscle contractions.

See also

Medical conditions associated with cholinergic muscle stimulants:

  • Dysautonomia
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Myasthenia Gravis
  • Nerve Agent Pretreatment
  • Reversal of Nondepolarizing Muscle Relaxants

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors block cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) an enzyme that promotes inflammation.

COX-2 enzyme converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin, causing pain and inflammation. They are mainly present in places of inflammation and are responsible for formation of prostanoids (prostacyclins, prostaglandins and thromboxanes) as part of the inflammatory response.

COX-2 inhibitors are used to relieve pain due to inflammation.

See also

Medical conditions associated with cox-2 inhibitors:

  • Ankylosing Spondylitis
  • Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
  • Fibromatosis
  • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Migraine
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Pain
  • Period Pain
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin) is a hormone produced by C cells in the thyroid gland. The main action of calcitonin is on the bone. It increases deposition of calcium and phosphate in the bone and lowers levels in the blood, so effectively it inhibits calcium resorption by binding to a specific receptor on the osteoclasts, and inhibits their action. In the kidneys, it decreases the re-absorption of both calcium and phosphate on the proximal tubules. Its overall effect is to decrease the plasma calcium concentration. Secretion is determined mainly by the plasma calcium concentration. Calcitonin is used to treat hypercalcemia and Paget

See also

Medical conditions associated with calcitonin:

  • Hypercalcemia
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta
  • Osteoporosis
  • Paget's Disease

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Monoclonal antibodies used in immunotherapy are produced artificially from a cell clone therefore consist of a single type of immunoglobulin. They are targeted towards specific antigens and bind to the antigens to form a complex. The complex can be recognized and destroyed by phagocytes or used for other diagnostic purposes.

Natural antibodies are proteins made by the B-lymphocytes in response to antigens. Each B-cell makes only one type of antibody. For therapeutic purposes a significant amount of a particular antibody is needed. These are obtained from a culture that gives a one type of antibody, which are called monoclonal antibodies.

CD20 monoclonal antibodies are targeted against B-cell antigens, and are used in the treatment of B-cell Non-Hodgkin

See also

Medical conditions associated with CD20 monoclonal antibodies:

  • Bullous Pemphigoid
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Diagnosis and Investigation
  • Evan's Syndrome
  • Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
  • Follicular Lymphoma
  • Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
  • Microscopic polyangiitis
  • Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
  • Pemphigoid
  • Pemphigus
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Wegener's Granulomatosus

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Chemokine receptor antagonists inhibit the entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into the host cell. Two chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CCR5, are necessary for the virus to enter the cell, so by inhibiting these chemokine receptors the disease can be slowed.

See also

Medical conditions associated with chemokine receptor antagonist:

  • HIV Infection

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Contraceptives are used to prevent unwanted pregnancy. Hormonal contraceptives consist of one or more synthetic female sex hormones (estrogen and progestin or progestin only). These sex hormones prevent pregnancy by blocking the normal process of ovulation. They may also alter the lining of the uterus (endometrium) so that it is unable to support a fertilized egg and they change the mucus in the cervix so that it is hard for the sperm to travel hence conception is less likely should ovulation occur.

These hormones are either taken as regular doses in pill form (oral contraceptives), or are administered through the skin by means of a patch impregnated with hormones. They can also be given by three monthly injections of a long acting progestin, or by subcutaneous implants of progestin. They are also available as hormonal intrauterine devices and vaginal rings.

See also

Medical conditions associated with contraceptives:

  • Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
  • Acne
  • Amenorrhea
  • Birth Control
  • Emergency Contraception
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Endometrial Hyperplasia, Prophylaxis
  • Endometriosis
  • Gonadotropin Inhibition
  • Menstrual Disorders
  • Ovarian Cysts
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Postmenopausal Symptoms
  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
  • Premenstrual Syndrome
  • Prevention of Osteoporosis
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Monoclonal antibodies used in immunotherapy are produced artificially from a cell clone therefore consist of a single type of immunoglobulin. They are targeted towards specific antigens and bind to the antigens to form a complex. The complex can be recognized and destroyed by phagocytes or used for other diagnostic purposes.

Natural antibodies are proteins made by the B-lymphocytes in response to antigens. Each B-cell makes only one type of antibody. For therapeutic purposes a significant amount of a particular antibody is needed. These are obtained from a culture that gives a one type of antibody, which are called monoclonal antibodies.

CD52 antigens are present on lymphocytes. CD52 monoclonal antibodies bind to CD52 antigens and bring about complement and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. CD52 monoclonal antibodies are used to treat patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL).

See also

Medical conditions associated with CD52 monoclonal antibodies:

  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Beta adrenergic blocking agents prevent stimulation of the beta adrenergic receptors at the nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system and therefore decrease the activity of the heart. They block sympathetic stimulation of the heart and reduce systolic pressure, heart rate, cardiac contractility and output, so decrease myocardial oxygen demand and increase exercise tolerance.

Beta adrenergic blocking agents are used to treat angina, control abnormal heart rhythms and to reduce high blood pressure. However, blocking of the beta receptors may cause bronchial constriction therefore care has to be taken with the use of beta blockers in patients with respiratory conditions.

Cardioselective beta blockers (beta1- selective blockers) have a clinical advantage in that they mainly affect the heart, which predominantly has beta1 receptors. The effect of broncho-constriction is less with beta1 selective blockers, as the bronchial muscle has more beta2 receptors, however the danger of broncho-constriction cannot be totally ignored, as they are not totally selective.

See also

Medical conditions associated with cardioselective beta blockers:

  • Alcohol Withdrawal
  • Angina
  • Angina Pectoris Prophylaxis
  • Anxiety
  • Atrial Fibrillation
  • Atrial Flutter
  • Benign Essential Tremor
  • Esophageal Variceal Hemorrhage Prophylaxis
  • Heart Attack
  • Heart Failure
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Intra- or Post-op SVT or Hypertension
  • Left Ventricular Dysfunction
  • Migraine Prevention

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Cholesterol absorption inhibitors reduce the absorption of dietary and biliary cholesterol through the intestines. Therefore it deceases the amount of intestinal cholesterol that is delivered to the liver. Reduced levels of cholesterol delivered to the liver results in increased hepatic LDL (low density lipoprotein) receptor activity, which leads to increased clearance of LDL cholesterol.

Cholesterol absorption inhibitors are used to treat hyperlipidemia, by lowering LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol.

See also

Medical conditions associated with cholesterol absorption inhibitors:

  • High Cholesterol
  • High Cholesterol, Familial Heterozygous
  • Sitosterolemia

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Monoclonal antibodies used in immunotherapy are produced artificially from a cell clone therefore consist of a single type of immunoglobulin. They are targeted towards specific antigens and bind to the antigens to form a complex. These complexes can be recognized and destroyed by phagocytes or used for other diagnostic purposes.

Natural antibodies are proteins made by the B-lymphocytes in response to antigens. Each B-cell makes only one type of antibody. For therapeutic purposes a significant amount of a particular antibody is needed. These are obtained from a culture that gives a one type of antibody, which are called monoclonal antibodies.

CD33 is an antigen present on granulocyte and macrophage precursors in the bone marrow. It differentiates myelogenous leukemia cells from lymphoid or erythroid leukemias.

CD33 monoclonal antibodies are administered with other chemotherapy agents, such as cytosine arabinoside and idarubicin, to enhance the cytotoxic effects on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells.

See also

Medical conditions associated with CD33 monoclonal antibodies:

  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Carbamate anticonvulsant agents are newer antiepileptic drugs whose exact mechanism of action is uncertain. It has some inhibitory effect at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and slightly potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity. It has a broad spectrum of activity but is only used in patients who are unresponsive to other anticonvulsant drugs, as it can cause severe reactions such as aplastic anemia, hepatitis and liver failure.

See also

Medical conditions associated with carbamate anticonvulsants:

  • Epilepsy
  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome