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A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Estrogens are a group of hormones that are synthesized mainly by the ovaries, a small amount is synthesized by the testes in males and by the adrenal cortex in both sexes. The placenta produces a fairly large amount of estrogen as well.

The three main endogenous estrogens are estradiol, estriol and estrone. Estrogens control female sexual development, the growth and function of female sexual organs and other secondary characteristics such as breast development. Excessive production of estrogen in men causes feminization.

Natural and synthetic estrogens are used to treat amenorrhea and menopausal symptoms. They can inhibit lactation and are also used in treatment of androgen-dependent cancers such as prostate cancer. Estrogens are given in any condition with estrogen deficiency.

Estrogens are used as contraceptives, in combination with progestins (another class of sex hormones).

See also

Medical conditions associated with estrogens:

  • Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
  • Atrophic Urethritis
  • Atrophic Vaginitis
  • Breast Cancer
  • Breast Cancer, Palliative
  • Hypoestrogenism
  • Menopausal Disorders
  • Oophorectomy
  • Osteoporosis
  • Postmenopausal Symptoms
  • Primary Ovarian Failure
  • Prostate Cancer

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Expectorants are drugs that increase the bronchial secretion and enhance the expulsion of mucus by air passages of the lungs. This makes it is easier to cough up the phlegm or sputum. Expectorants are used in cough mixtures for chesty coughs.

See also

Medical conditions associated with expectorants:

  • Bronchitis
  • Cough
  • Cutaneous Sporotrichosis
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Radiation Emergency

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Echinocandins are a class of antifungal drugs that target the fungal cell wall. They are lipopeptide molecules that noncompetitively inhibit (1,3) beta-d-glucan synthase enzyme. This enzyme forms glucan, a major component of the fungal cell wall therefore by inhibiting its synthesis fungal cell walls are damaged.

See also

Medical conditions associated with echinocandins:

  • Aspergillosis, Invasive
  • Candida Infections, Systemic
  • Esophageal Candidiasis
  • Febrile Neutropenia
  • Fungal Infection Prophylaxis

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Estrogen receptor antagonists bind to estrogen receptors and inhibit the action of estrogen. Estrogen controls the growth of certain types of breast cancers called estrogen receptor positive cancers. So estrogen receptor antagonists are useful in treating patients with estrogen sensitive breast cancers.

See also

Medical conditions associated with estrogen receptor antagonists:

  • Breast Cancer
  • Breast Cancer, Metastatic

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, also known as ErbB-1 or HER-1) inhibitors are either tyrosine kinase inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies that slow down or stop cell growth.

EGFRs are transmembrane receptors present on the cell membranes. They have an extracellular binding component, a transmembrane component and an intracellular tyrosine kinase component. EGFRs play an important role in controlling normal cell growth, apoptosis and other cellular functions. Mutations of EGFRs can lead to continual or abnormal activation of the receptors causing unregulated cell division, which can account for some types of cancers.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors bind to the tyrosine kinase domain in the epidermal growth factor receptor and stop the activity of the EGFR.

Monoclonal antibodies bind to the extracellular component of the epidermal growth factor receptors, prevent the actual substrates from binding to the receptors therefore prevent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

EGFR inhibitors are used to treat non-small-cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and some other cancers that are caused by epidermal growth factor receptor up-regulation.

See also

Medical conditions associated with EGFR inhibitors:

  • Breast Cancer
  • Breast Cancer, Metastatic
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Head and Neck Cancer
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Thyroid Cancer