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A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Psoralen is a light-sensitive drug that absorbs ultraviolet (long wave - UVA) light and acts like ultraviolet radiation. Psoralens are used together with ultraviolet light (PUVA therapy) to treat skin conditions such as vitiligo, eczema, psoriasis and skin problems related to certain lymphomas.

Psoralens are either taken orally or applied topically where the patient soaks in a bath containing the psoralen, then UVA light is applied to treat the skin condition.

See also

Medical conditions associated with psoralens:

  • Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma
  • Psoriasis

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Penicillinase resistant penicillins are antibiotics, which are not inactivated by the penicillinase enzyme. Some bacteria produce the enzyme penicillinase that destroys the beta-lactam ring of the antibiotic, making the penicillin ineffective. Penicillinase resistant penicillins are used to treat resistant strains of staphylococci and other infections.

See also

Medical conditions associated with penicillinase resistant penicillins:

  • Bacteremia
  • Bacterial Infection
  • Bladder Infection
  • Bone infection
  • Bronchitis
  • Endocarditis
  • Joint Infection
  • Meningitis
  • Pharyngitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Septicemia
  • Sinusitis
  • Skin and Structure Infection
  • Skin Infection
  • Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Pyrrolidine anticonvulsant, levetiracetam, is used in the treatment of epilepsy. The exact mechanism of action is not known but appears to slow down nerve transmission. They are used as adjunct therapy to treat partial and tonic-clonic seizures.

See also

Medical conditions associated with pyrrolidine anticonvulsants:

  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Epilepsy
  • Hyperekplexia
  • Neuralgia
  • New Daily Persistent Headache
  • Seizures

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Peripherally acting antiobesity agents are drugs that assist with weight loss, without affecting the brain or suppressing the appetite. It inhibits pancreatic lipase and prevents fat breakdown in the gastrointestinal tract therefore reduces intestinal absorption of fat. It is used to treat obesity, with diet and exercise.

See also

Medical conditions associated with peripherally acting antiobesity agents:

  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
  • Obesity

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Protease inhibitors are synthetic drugs that inhibit the action of HIV-1 protease, an enzyme that cleaves two precursor proteins into smaller fragments. These fragments are needed for viral growth, infectivity and replication. Protease inhibitors bind to the active site of the protease enzyme and prevent the maturation of the newly produced virions so that they remain non-infectious.

Protease inhibitors are used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

See also

Medical conditions associated with protease inhibitors:

  • Hepatitis C
  • HIV Infection
  • Nonoccupational Exposure
  • Occupational Exposure

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Parathyroid hormone and analogs (a synthetic form of parathyroid hormone) control the distribution of phosphate and calcium in the body. High levels of parathyroid hormone triggers transfer of calcium from the bones to the blood. It increases absorption of calcium by the intestine and increases reabsorption of calcium by the renal tubules. A low level of parathyroid hormone reduces calcium levels in the blood.

Constant high levels of parathyroid hormone cause bone resorption but sporadic administration of exogenous recombinant parathyroid hormone stimulates bone formation.

Clinically used parathyroid hormone analogs are used to build bone mass in patients who have low bone density. They are used to treat or prevent osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women, who have fractures or are at a high risk of having fractures.

See also

Medical conditions associated with parathyroid hormone and analogs:

  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Osteoporosis

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Peripheral vasodilators are agents which act on the most distal parts of the vascular system i.e. the arterioles and venules. They dilate these distal blood vessels and lower the blood pressure, therefore makes it easier for the heart to pump blood through these peripheral blood vessels (and therefore whole the body).

Peripheral vasodilators are used in the treatment of hypertension, acute myocardial infarction and heart failure.

See also

Medical conditions associated with peripheral vasodilators:

  • Cerebrovascular Insufficiency
  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • Nocturnal Leg Cramps
  • Raynaud's Syndrome
  • Renal Artery Atherosclerosis

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Purine nucleosides are antiviral agents that have selective activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 (cold sores) and 2 (genital herpes) and varicella zoster virus (chicken pox).

The purine nucleoside molecule is converted to a monophosphate by viral thymidine kinases. The monophosphate is then converted to diphosphate and then into a triphosphate form by cellular enzymes. The triphosphate form blocks the replication of viral DNA by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase and terminating the growing viral DNA chain.

Purine nucleosides are more potent against the viral enzymes than the host enzymes.

See also

Medical conditions associated with purine nucleosides:

  • CMV Retinitis
  • Cold Sores
  • Cytomegalovirus Infection
  • Hepatitis C
  • Herpes Simplex
  • Herpes Simplex Encephalitis
  • Herpes Simplex, Mucocutaneous/Immunocompetent Host
  • Herpes Simplex, Mucocutaneous/Immunocompromised Host
  • Herpes Simplex, Suppression
  • Herpes Zoster
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus
  • Smallpox Vaccine Reaction
  • Varicella-Zoster

Penicillin is an antibiotic that disturbs the cell wall synthesis in bacteria. It was initially derived from the mold Penicillium rubrum. Since then, a number of naturally occurring penicillins have been derived e.g. penicillin G (benzylpenicillin) and penicillin V (phenoxymethylpenicillin).

Other antibiotics obtained from penicillins include amoxicillin, ampicillin, flucloxacillin. These are classed as semisynthetic penicillins.

Penicillins are bactericidal and mainly active against gram-positive bacteria.

The most important side effect of penicillins is hypersensitivity, such as rashes or anaphylaxis. Patients who are allergic to one penicillin will be allergic to all.

See also

  • aminopenicillins
  • antipseudomonal penicillins
  • beta-lactamase inhibitors
  • natural penicillins
  • penicillinase resistant penicillins

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Phenothiazine antipsychotics are dopamine-2 (D2) receptor antagonists therefore decrease the effect of dopamine in the brain. Phenothiazines are classed as typical antipscyhotics and are used to treat schizophrenia or psychosis.

See also

Medical conditions associated with phenothiazine antipsychotics:

  • Agitated State
  • Anxiety
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Hiccups
  • Light Sedation
  • Mania
  • Nausea/Vomiting
  • Opiate Withdrawal
  • Porphyria
  • Psychosis
  • Schizophrenia
  • Tetanus

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Platelet aggregation inhibitors work in different places of the clotting cascade and prevent platelet adhesion, therefore no clot formation.

Aspirin, the most commonly used antiplatelet drug changes the balance between prostacyclin (which inhibits platelet aggregation) and thromboxane (that promotes aggregation). It irreversibly inhibits the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase, which leads to reduction in thromboxane synthesis in platelets and prostacyclin in vascular endothelial cells. The vascular endothelium recovers and can synthesize more prostacyclin but thromboxane synthesis only recovers after new platelets are formed.

Platelet aggregation inhibitors are used acutely in myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, following coronary bypass, angioplasty and stenting. It is also used as prophylaxis to prevent myocardial infarction and stroke.

See also

Medical conditions associated with platelet aggregation inhibitors:

  • Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome, Prophylaxis
  • Angina
  • Angina Pectoris Prophylaxis
  • Ankylosing Spondylitis
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome
  • Aseptic Necrosis
  • Back Pain
  • Cerebral Thrombosis/Embolism
  • Fever
  • Heart Attack
  • High Cholesterol
  • Intermittent Claudication
  • Ischemic Stroke
  • Ischemic Stroke, Prophylaxis
  • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Kawasaki Disease
  • Myocardial Infarction, Prophylaxis
  • Niacin Flush

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Psychotherapeutic combinations are products that contain more than one agent to treat psychosis and other mood disorders. The different products have drugs combinations, which work by different mechanisms and the most appropriate combination is chosen depending on the symptoms and diagnosis. The combination used is aimed to achieve leveled mood or behavior.

See also

Medical conditions associated with psychotherapeutic combinations:

  • Agitation
  • Anxiety
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Depression

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Proton pump inhibitors act by irreversible inhibition of the H+/K+ ATPase, in the parietal cells of the stomach. It markedly inhibits gastric acid secretion and has a long duration of action. They are used for treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease and other excessive gastrointestinal acid secretory disorders.

See also

Medical conditions associated with proton pump inhibitors:

  • Aspiration Pneumonia
  • Barrett's Esophagus
  • Duodenal Ulcer
  • Duodenal Ulcer Prophylaxis
  • Erosive Esophagitis
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
  • GERD
  • Helicobacter Pylori Infection
  • Indigestion
  • Multiple Endocrine Adenomas
  • NSAID-Induced Gastric Ulcer
  • NSAID-Induced Ulcer Prophylaxis
  • Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions
  • Peptic Ulcer
  • Stomach Ulcer
  • Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis
  • Systemic Mastocytosis
  • Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Progesterone receptor modulators are agents that act on the progesterone receptors. They act as agonists or antagonists. Some progesterone modulators act as agonists in some tissues and antagonists in other tissues.

Progesterone receptor modulators that have both agonist and antagonist activity can be used for emergency contraception.

Agents that act as progesterone antagonists are used as abortifacients. They block the effects of progesterone, which is essential during pregnancy, therefore leads to termination of the pregnancy.

See also

Medical conditions associated with progesterone receptor modulators:

  • Abortion
  • Birth Control
  • Cushing's Syndrome
  • Emergency Contraception
  • Uterine Fibroids

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Antifungal agents are also called antimycotic agents.

Polyene antifungals bind to ergosterol, the main sterol in the fungal cell membrane, and cause depolarization of the membrane. This increases the membrane permeability and leads to cell death.

They are not absorbed when given orally, so are used to treat fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract, such as oral thrush. For treatment of systemic fungal infections they need to be administered intravenously.

See also

Medical conditions associated with polyenes:

  • Aspergillosis, Aspergilloma
  • Aspergillosis, Invasive
  • Blastomycosis
  • Candida Infections, Systemic
  • Candida Urinary Tract Infection
  • Coccidioidomycosis
  • Coccidioidomycosis, Meningitis
  • Cryptococcal Meningitis, Immunocompetent Host
  • Cryptococcal Meningitis, Immunosuppressed Host
  • Cryptococcosis
  • Esophageal Candidiasis
  • Febrile Neutropenia
  • Fungal Endocarditis
  • Fungal Infection Prophylaxis
  • Gastrointestinal Candidiasis
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Histoplasmosis, Immunocompenent Host
  • Histoplasmosis, Meningitis
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Oral Thrush
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis
  • Sporotrichosis

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Phenothiazine antiemetics inhibit dopamine, muscarinic and histamine (H1) receptors generally in the vomiting center and chemoreceptor trigger zone.

Phenothiazine antiemetics are used to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting caused bycytotoxic drugs and radiotherapy.

See also

Medical conditions associated with phenothiazine antiemetics:

  • Agitated State
  • Allergic Reactions
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Anxiety
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Hay Fever
  • Hiccups
  • Light Sedation
  • Mania
  • Motion Sickness
  • Nausea/Vomiting
  • Opiate Adjunct
  • Opiate Withdrawal
  • Porphyria
  • Psychosis
  • Schizophrenia
  • Sedation
  • Tetanus
  • Urticaria
  • Vertigo

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Plasma expanders are agents that have relatively high molecular weight and boost the plasma volume by increasing the osmotic pressure. They are used to treat patients who have suffered hemorrhage or shock. Shock occurs due to reduced blood volume (usually due to hemorrhage) and it is necessary to get the blood volume back to normal as quickly as possible.

See also

Medical conditions associated with plasma expanders:

  • Bleeding Disorder
  • Blood Disorders
  • Burns, External
  • Hypoproteinemia
  • Pancreatitis
  • Peritonitis
  • Postoperative Albumin Loss
  • Shock

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Progestins are a group of naturally occurring or synthetic steroid hormones. The naturally occurring progestin is progesterone, which is secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary, the placenta and also (in small amounts) by the adrenal cortex and testes. It prepares the inner lining of the uterus for pregnancy, and if pregnancy occurs it maintains the uterus through the pregnancy and prevents ovulation by the ovaries during pregnancy.

Mainly synthetic progestins are used in drug therapy. They are used to treat amenorrhea, premenstrual tension and abnormal uterine bleeding.

As they prevent ovulation, progestins are a major constituent of oral contraceptives and other forms of contraception.

See also

Medical conditions associated with progestins:

  • Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
  • AIDS Related Wasting
  • Amenorrhea
  • Anorexia
  • Birth Control
  • Breast Cancer, Palliative
  • Cachexia
  • Emergency Contraception
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Endometrial Hyperplasia
  • Endometrial Hyperplasia, Prophylaxis
  • Endometriosis
  • Hot Flashes
  • Perimenopausal Symptoms
  • Premature Labor
  • Progesterone Insufficiency
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Seizures
  • Uterine Bleeding
  • Weight Loss

Psychotherapeutic agents are used to treat psychosis, which refers to a group of mental disorders for example depression, schizophrenia, manic-depressive disorders and so on. They affect mood and behavior. The different class of psychotherapeutic agents would work differently. They may produce their effects by receptor block, inhibition of transporters, and by other mechanisms. The clinical benefits of these drugs may take weeks to appear.

See also

  • antidepressants
    • miscellaneous antidepressants
    • monoamine oxidase inhibitors
    • phenylpiperazine antidepressants
    • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    • serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
    • tetracyclic antidepressants
    • tricyclic antidepressants
  • antipsychotics
    • atypical antipsychotics
    • phenothiazine antipsychotics
    • thioxanthenes
  • norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
  • norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors
  • psychotherapeutic combinations