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A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Vasodilators are agents that widen the blood vessels therefore cause a decrease in vascular resistance and an increase in blood flow. They may act by activation of the vasomotor center in the brain, which brings about relaxation of the smooth muscle in the blood vessel walls or they can act locally on blood vessel smooth muscle cells.

Vasodilators are used to treat hypertension, angina and congestive heart failure.

See also

Medical conditions associated with vasodilators:

  • Anal Fissure and Fistula
  • Angina
  • Angina Pectoris Prophylaxis
  • Erectile Dysfunction
  • Heart Attack
  • Heart Failure
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Hypertensive Emergency
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus
  • Raynaud's Syndrome

Vaccines are a special preparation of antigenic material (live or inactivated) that are used to stimulate the development of antibodies, to produce immunity against a specific disease.

Vaccines can be produced by making bacteria and viruses nonpathogenic, under conditions that make them lose their virulence but not their antigenic nature. They won’t cause disease but are able to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against a particular organism.

See also

  • bacterial vaccines
  • toxoids
  • viral vaccines

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Vitamins and minerals are required in very small amounts but are essential for healthy growth and development, and general well-being.

Vitamins occur naturally in certain foods but are not synthesized by humans and therefore it is essential to include it in the diet. Vitamins are either water soluble or fat soluble. Minerals are inorganic substances available in the soil and water. They are taken up by plants and are absorbed by humans from their diet.

Inadequate intake of any particular vitamin or mineral in the diet causes specific vitamin and mineral deficiency. Vitamin and mineral supplements (either alone or in combination) are taken to treat the deficiency.

See also

Medical conditions associated with vitamin and mineral combinations:

  • Anemia
  • Anemia Associated with Chronic Renal Failure
  • Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency
  • Dietary Supplementation
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Osteopenia
  • Osteoporosis
  • Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation and Deficiency
  • Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation during Pregnancy/Lactation

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Vaginal anti-infectives are available as creams, pessaries (tablets), gels or solutions to treat either bacterial or fungal vaginal infections. Vaginal antifungal products are used to treat vaginal thrush. Antibacterial vaginal products are used for bacterial infections such as bacterial vaginosis. Other products are used to manage irritation or minor soreness.

See also

Medical conditions associated with vaginal anti-infectives:

  • Acne
  • Bacterial Vaginitis
  • Cutaneous Candidiasis
  • Fungal Infection Prophylaxis
  • Oral Thrush
  • Perioral Dermatitis
  • Rosacea
  • Tinea Corporis
  • Tinea Cruris
  • Tinea Pedis
  • Tinea Versicolor
  • Vaginal Yeast Infection

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Vasopressin antagonists are drugs that bind to vasopressin receptors (V1A, V1B and V2) and block the action of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH), which is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. Vasopressin causes vasoconstriction and increases reabsorption of water by the kidneys.

V1A and V2 receptors are found peripherally and V1A and V1B receptors are found in the central nervous system. V1A receptors regulate blood pressure and V2 receptors have an effect on renal function.

Vasopressin antagonists are used to treat hyponatremia particularly in congestive heart failure patients.

See also

Medical conditions associated with vasopressin antagonists:

  • Euvolemic Hyponatremia
  • Hyponatremia
  • SIADH

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Viral vaccines contain either inactivated viruses or attenuated (alive but not capable of causing disease) viruses.

Inactivated or killed viral vaccines contain viruses, which have lost their ability to replicate and in order for it to bring about a response it contains more antigen than live vaccines. Attenuated or live vaccines contain the live form of the virus. These viruses are not pathogenic but are able to induce an immune response.

See also

Medical conditions associated with viral vaccines:

  • Gastroenteritis
  • Hepatitis A Prophylaxis
  • Hepatitis B Prevention
  • Herpes Zoster, Prophylaxis
  • Human Papillomavirus Prophylaxis
  • Infection Prophylaxis
  • Influenza Prophylaxis
  • Japanese Encephalitis Virus Prophylaxis
  • Measles Prophylaxis
  • Mumps Prophylaxis
  • Poliomyelitis Prophylaxis
  • Rabies Prophylaxis
  • Rubella Prophylaxis
  • Smallpox Prophylaxis
  • Varicella-Zoster, Prophylaxis
  • Yellow Fever Prophylaxis

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

See also

Medical conditions associated with vaccine combinations:

  • Diphtheria Prophylaxis
  • Haemophilus influenzae Prophylaxis
  • Hepatitis A Prophylaxis
  • Hepatitis B Prevention
  • Measles Prophylaxis
  • Mumps Prophylaxis
  • Pertussis Prophylaxis
  • Poliomyelitis Prophylaxis
  • Rubella Prophylaxis
  • Tetanus
  • Tetanus Prophylaxis
  • Varicella-Zoster, Prophylaxis

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Vitamins are substances that are required in very small amounts, for healthy growth and development. They occur naturally in certain foods but are not synthesized by humans and therefore it is essential to include it in the diet. Vitamins are either water soluble or fat soluble. Inadequate intake of any particular vitamin in the diet causes specific vitamin deficiency disease. Vitamin supplements are taken to correct inadequate intake in diet and to treat the deficiency.

See also

Medical conditions associated with vitamins:

  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • Anemia
  • Anemia, Megaloblastic
  • Anemia, Sickle Cell
  • B12 Nutritional Deficiency
  • Beriberi
  • Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Cyanide Poisoning
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Depression
  • Dietary Supplementation
  • Drug Induced Vitamin/Mineral Deficiency
  • Familial Hypophosphatemia
  • Folic Acid Deficiency
  • Headache
  • Herbal Supplementation
  • High Cholesterol
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV, Elevated VLDL
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia Type V, Elevated Chylomicrons VLDL
  • Hypocalcemia
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Hypophosphatemia
  • Hypoprothrombinemia, Anticoagulant Induced
  • Hypoprothrombinemia, Not Associated with Anticoagulant Therapy
  • Hypoprothrombinemia, Pr

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/ vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors are agents that inhibit the activity of VEGF and VEGFR. VEGR and VEGFR (a tyrosine kinase receptor) signaling modulates angiogenesis, which involves making of new blood vessels from existing blood vessels.

Abnormal angiogenesis is known to occur in cancer, degenerative eye conditions and other conditions that involve inflammation. Specific monoclonal antibodies can be used as VEGF inhibitors and particular tyrosine kinase inhibitors are used as VEGFR inhibitors.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/ vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors are used to treat various types of cancers.

See also

Medical conditions associated with VEGF/VEGFR inhibitors:

  • Breast Cancer
  • Breast Cancer, Metastatic
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor
  • Glioblastoma Multiforme
  • Hepatic Tumor
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Macular Degeneration
  • Malignant Glioma
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Solid Tumors
  • Thyroid Cancer

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Viscosupplementation agents are preparations that have hyaluronic acid, which is injected into the knee joint to relieve pain associated with osteoarthritis. Joints affected by osteoarthritis have less hyaluronic acid, which is naturally present in the synovial fluid. Hyaluronic acid acts as a lubricant and allows bones to move smoothly without rubbing against each other. Viscosupplementation agents also improve joint movement.

See also

Medical conditions associated with viscosupplementation agents:

  • Osteoarthritis

Vaginal preparations are products, which are applied or inserted in the vagina to treat vaginal conditions. They may contain antibacterial or antifungal agents to treat infection, or they have agents such as hormones that relieve menopausal symptoms. Vaginal preparations are available as creams, pessaries (tablet), gels or rings.

See also

  • miscellaneous vaginal agents
  • vaginal anti-infectives

A drug may be classified by the chemical type of the active ingredient or by the way it is used to treat a particular condition. Each drug can be classified into one or more drug classes.

Vasopressors cause vasoconstriction (contract blood vessels) and increase blood pressure. They are used to treat hypotension, especially in critically ill patients.

See also

Medical conditions associated with vasopressors:

  • Adams-Stokes Syndrome
  • Allergic Reactions
  • Asthma, acute
  • Asystole
  • AV Heart Block
  • Bronchospasm During Anesthesia
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia
  • COPD, Acute
  • Electromechanical Dissociation
  • Heart Failure
  • Hypotension
  • Myasthenia Gravis
  • Narcolepsy
  • Nasal Congestion
  • Nonobstructive Oliguria
  • Shock
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia